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Town of Groton

  •   State: 
    New London County
      County FIPS: 
    41°20′54″N 72°4′39″W
      Area total: 
    45.3 sq mi (117.3 km²)
      Area land: 
    31.0 sq mi (80.4 km²)
      Area water: 
    14.2 sq mi (36.9 km²)
    1705; Incorporated 1705
  •   Latitude: 
      Dman name cbsa: 
    Norwich-New London, CT
    Eastern Standard Time (EST) UTC-5:00; Eastern Daylight Time (EDT) UTC-4:00
      ZIP codes: 

    Groton, New London County, Connecticut, United States

  •   Population: 
      Population density: 
    850 residents per square mile of area (330/km²)
      Household income: 
      Unemployment rate: 
  •   Sales taxes: 
      Income taxes: 

Groton was established in 1705 when it separated from New London, Connecticut. The town was named after Groton, Suffolk in England. It is the home of General Dynamics Electric Boat, which is the major contractor for submarine work for the United States Navy. The pharmaceutical company Pfizer is also a major employer in Groton. A memorial for the Patriot soldiers who were killed at the Fort Griswold battle was erected in 1830 for the 85 soldiers who died at the battle. The population of Groton was 38,411 at the 2020 census, and it is expected to grow to 40,000 by the end of the 20th century. Groton is located on the Thames River, between Pawcatuck River and the Mystic River. The Niantic people, a branch of the Mohawk people, settled in the area 100 years before it was established, but they eventually settled in Westerly, Rhode Island. The Dutch had unintentionally killed the Pequots' chief, and this prompted revenge by thePequot tribe, which escalated into the Pe Quot War (1636-1638). On the night of May 26, 1637, the Colonial forces arrived outside a Pequot village. The palisade surrounding the village had only two exits, and their leader Colonel John Mason gave the order to set the village on fire and block off the exits. Those who tried climbing over the palisades were shot; anyone who succeeded in getting over was killed by the Narragansett forces. Most of the community began to build ships.


Groton was established in 1705 when it separated from New London, Connecticut. The town was named after Groton, Suffolk in England. A hundred years before it was established, the Niantic people settled in the area between the Thames River and Pawcatuck River. In 1633, the Dutch bought land from them and opened a fur trading post. The Dutch had unintentionally killed the Pequots' chief, and this prompted revenge by the pequot tribe. In 1781, the Battle of Groton Heights was fought between a combined force of state troops and local militia led by William Ledyard and numerous British forces led by Benedict Arnold. After an initial repulse, the British succeeded in entering the fort and overpowering the small garrison inside. In 1830, a memorial for the battle was erected in 1830 for 85 Patriot soldiers who were killed at the Fort Griswold. The 135-foot-tall (41 m) monument has become the town's symbol and is now featured on the Groton seal. Groton is located on the banks of the Connecticut River, which runs through the center of the town. It is the only town left from the Revolutionary War left in the town from 1784 to 1787. It was also the site of the American Civil War (1775-1875) and the First World War (1861-1870). Groton was named for the town in Suffolk, England, where it was founded in 1633.


According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 45.3 square miles (117.3 km²) Groton has a humid continental climate (Dfb) The town is home to the U.S. Navy's Conning Towers-Nautilus Park submarine base. Groton is located on the Thames River, which is a tributary of the Merrimack River. The town also has a number of historic sites, including Burnett's Corner, Groton Heights, Long Hill, Poquonock Bridge, and the Groton Bank historic district. The Town of Groton was founded in 1805. The name Groton comes from the name of the town's first settler, George Groton. The Groton River runs through the town, which was named after a local family. The river is a major source of water for the town. The city is also home to a large number of historical sites, many of which are located along Packer Road, which runs south of Route 184. The village of Stonington is located in the neighboring town of West Mystic (06355), but a small portion (West Mystic) is in Groton (06356) The city has a population of 2,816. The population of StOnington is 2,716. It is the second-largest town in the state, after Groton, with the population of 1,813. The state's largest city is Hartford (population: 2,938).


As of the census of 2000, there were 39,907 people, 15,473 households, and 9,980 families residing in the town. The racial makeup of the town was 83.61% White, 6.95% Black or African American, 3.33% Asian, 0.17% Pacific Islander, 1.66% from other races, and 3.45% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.01% of the population. The median income for a household was $46,154, and the median family income was $51,402. About 4.9% of families and 6.1% of residents were below the poverty line, including 8.0% of those under age 18 and 6,1% who are 65 or over. The town has a population density of 1,275.2 inhabitants per square mile (492.4/km²). There were 16,817 housing units at an average density of 537.4 per squaremile (207.5/ km²) The town's median age is 32 years, with 24.8% under the age of 18, 11. 8% from 18 to 24, 33.0%, 18.3% from 25 to 44, and 12. 1% who were 65 years of age or older. For every 100 females aged 18 and over, there are 105.5 males. The city has a median income of $36,204, with $30,255 for females.


The Town of Groton has a Town Council consisting of 9 members, along with a Representative Town Meeting. The current Mayor is Juan Melendez and the current Town Manager is John Burt. The Town has a Council/Town Manager form of Government. The town has a population of 2,000. The population of the town has grown from 1,000 to 3,000 in the last 50 years. The city has had a population growth rate of 1.7% in the past 50 years, the highest rate of any town in the United States. The town's population has grown by 1.8% in that time. The growth rate is the highest in the state of New Hampshire. The state's population is 2,200, the largest growth rate in the U.S. since the mid-1970s. The City has an average population of 3,200. The mayor's office has a staff of nine. The council has a total of nine members, including the mayor and the town manager. The Mayor's office also has a representative Town Meeting, which is held once a year. The Council has a town manager, who is the town's chief executive officer, and a town council member, who serves a two-year term. The village has a mayor and town council president, who serve a two year term, as well as a town clerk. The community has aldermen, who are appointed by the mayor, and have the power to remove the mayor if they choose.


There are two major companies in Groton: General Dynamics Electric Boat and Pfizer. The Electric Boat plant on the eastern shore of the Thames River employs 10,500 people in the community. Pfizer is one of the world's largest pharmaceutical companies, and the company maintains a 137-acre (0.55 km²) research and development facility. According to the Town's 2010 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the top employers are: Pfizer, General Dynamics, and New England Scientific. The Town's top employer in 2009 was General Dynamics; in 2010 it was Pfizer; and in 2011 it was NewEngland Scientific. In 2012, the town's top employers were General Dynamics and the Town of Groton; in 2013, it was the town of Woonsocket; in 2014, it will be New Hampshire, and in 2015, the state of Rhode Island. The town's unemployment rate is 3.7%. The town has a population of 6,000; the unemployment rate in 2011 was 3.8%. The Town has a poverty rate of 2.7%; the poverty rate in 2010 was 2.8%; and the unemployment Rate in 2013 was 3%. The city's economy is based on a population growth rate of 1.9%. The economy has been growing at a rate of 0.7% annually since 2008; the growth rate in the last five years has been 0.4%. The population has grown by 1.8% in the past five years, the highest rate since 2000.


There are many schools in the Groton area. Groton Public Schools is the local school district serving Groton, operating elementary, middle and high school locations. Marine Science Magnet High School is an independent high school. E.T. Grasso/Southeastern Technical High School serves Groton and surrounding communities. The University of Connecticut has a campus in Groton. There are also independent high schools for middle and elementary school students. There is a high school for high school students in the town of Groton as well as a technical school for middle school and elementary students. The town is home to the U.S. Army National Guard, which is based in the nearby town of Middletown. It is also home to a number of military bases, including the Army Air Force Base, the Air Force Academy, and the National Guard Training Center. It also has its own high school, which serves the town and surrounding areas. It has a college, the University ofConnecticut, which offers a variety of programs for students in high school and college. There also is a private school, the Connecticut School of the Arts, which teaches English and other subjects. It was founded in the early 1900s, and is located in the city's downtown area. The school is now a part of the Connecticut State College of Education, which also serves the city and surrounding towns. The Groton School of Arts and Sciences is a non-sectarian, non-profit college. It offers classes in English, French, Spanish, and Spanish.


Groton is served by Southeast Area Transit District, the local area bus service district. The nearest passenger rail station is across the Thames River in New London, CT, being served by Amtrak and the CT DOT's Shoreline East commuter service. Air travel is provided by Groton-New London Airport, a state-owned public-use airport in the southeast section of Groton. Since 2004, Groton has not had scheduled passenger service, but has intermittently offered charter services with small local airlines. Rhode Island T.F. Green International Airport and Bradley International Airport are the nearest scheduled passenger airports. There is no passenger rail service serving Groton at this time, but there is a freight rail line running through Groton off of the Northeast Corridor. There are connections to neighboring New London and Norwich, CT through SEAT, through which Groton can be reached by bus or train. The town is located on the Connecticut River, which runs through New London. Groton is located near the Connecticut-Rhode Island border, and is near the New England border. It is also close to the Connecticut Turnpike, which connects Groton to New York City and New Haven, and to the New York-Massachusetts border, which links Groton with New York and New England. It also has connections to the East Coast via the New Haven-Norwich rail line, which is also located in New York state. The city has a population of about 2,000, with the majority of its residents living in the southeastern section.

Points of interest

Branford House and Alexey von Schlippe Gallery of Art. Groton Monument, one of the oldest obelisks in the United States. Gungywamp archaeological site. New London Ledge Light. U.S. Navy Submarine Force Library and Museum, including USS Nautilus. The National Museum of American History, which includes the National Gallery of Modern Art, is located in Washington, D.C. and is open to the public. The Museum of Modern and Contemporary Art, which is housed in the Washington, DC, National Museum, is open for the public to visit. The museum is open from 9am to 5pm daily and is free to the general public.

Air Quality, Water Quality, Superfund Sites & UV Index

The Air Quality index is in Groton, New London County, Connecticut = 41.4. These Air Quality index is based on annual reports from the EPA. Higher values are better (100=best). The number of ozone alert days is used as an indicator of air quality, as are the amounts of seven pollutants including particulates, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, lead, and volatile organic chemicals. The Water Quality Index is 63. A measure of the quality of an area’s water supply as rated by the EPA. Higher values are better (100=best). The EPA has a complex method of measuring the watershed quality, using 15 indicators such as pollutants, turbidity, sediments, and toxic discharges. The Superfund Sites Index is 60. Higher is better (100=best). Based upon the number and impact of EPA Superfund pollution sites in the county, including spending on the cleanup efforts. The UV Index in Groton = 3.3 and is a measure of an area's exposure to the sun's ultraviolet rays. This is most often a combination of sunny weather, altitude, and latitude. The UV Index has been defined by the WHO ( and is uniform worldwide.


The most recent city population of 38,411 individuals with a median age of 33.7 age the population grows by 8.22% in Groton, New London County, Connecticut population since 2000 and are distributed over a density of 850 residents per square mile of area (330/km²). There are average 2.14 people per household in the 4,603 households with an average household income of $48,086 a year. The unemployment rate in Alabama is 8.30% of the available work force and has dropped -2.12% over the most recent 12-month period and the projected change in job supply over the next decade based on migration patterns, economic growth, and other factors will increase by 27.46%. The number of physicians in Groton per 100,000 population = 211.1.


The annual rainfall in Groton = 48.1 inches and the annual snowfall = 24.3 inches. The annual number of days with measurable precipitation (over .01 inch) = 117. The average number of days per year that are predominantly sunny = 206. 80 degrees Fahrenheit is the average daily high temperature for the month of July and 19.6 degrees Fahrenheit is the average daily low temperature for the month of January. The Comfort Index (higher=better) is 45, where higher values mean a more pleasant climate. The Comfort Index measure recognizes that humidity by itself isn't the problem. (Have you noticed nobody ever complains about the weather being 'cold and humid?) It's in the summertime that we notice the humidity the most, when it's hot and muggy. Our Comfort Index uses a combination of afternoon summer temperature and humidity to closely predict the effect that the humidity will have on people.

Median Home Cost

The percentage of housing units in Groton, New London County, Connecticut which are owned by the occupant = 36.90%. A housing unit is a house, apartment, mobile home, or room occupied as separate living quarters. The average age of homes = 46 years with median home cost = $202,260 and home appreciation of -6.53%. This is the value of the years most recent home sales data. Its important to note that this is not the average (or arithmetic mean). The median home price is the middle value when you arrange all the sales prices of homes from lowest to highest. This is a better indicator than the average, because the median is not changed as much by a few unusually high or low values. The property tax rate of $15.98 shown here is the rate per $1,000 of home value. If for simplification for example the tax rate is $14.00 and the home value is $250,000, the property tax would be $14.00 x ($250,000/1000), or $3500. This is the 'effective' tax rate.


The local school district spends $7,770 per student. There are 14.5 students for each teacher in the school, 345 students for each Librarian and 412 students for each Counselor. 6.67% of the area’s population over the age of 25 with an Associate Degree or other 2-year college degree, 11.87% with a master’s degree, Ph.D. or other advanced college degree and 7.10% with high school diplomas or high school equivalency degrees (GEDs).

  • Groton's population in New London County, Connecticut of 5,962 residents in 1900 has increased 6,44-fold to 38,411 residents after 120 years, according to the official 2020 census.

    Approximately 46.34% female residents and 53.66% male residents live in Groton, New London County, Connecticut.

    As of 2020 in Groton, New London County, Connecticut are married and the remaining 54.89% are single population.

  • 19.5 minutes is the average time that residents in Groton require for a one-way commute to work. A long commute can have different effects on health. A Gallup poll in the US found that in terms of mental health, long haul commuters are up to 12 percent more likely to experience worry, and ten percent less likely to feel well rested. The Gallup poll also found that of people who commute 61­–90 minutes each day, a whopping one third complained of neck and back pain, compared to less than a quarter of people who only spend ten minutes getting to work.

    72.22% of the working population which commute to work alone in their car, 12.15% of the working population which commutes to work in a carpool, 2.73% of the population that commutes using mass transit, including bus, light rail, subway, and ferry. 1.19% of the population that has their home as their principal place of work.

  • Of the total residential buildings in Groton, New London County, Connecticut, 36.90% are owner-occupied homes, another 54.90% are rented apartments, and the remaining 8.20% are vacant.

  • The 43.48% of the population in Groton, New London County, Connecticut who identify themselves as belonging to a religion are distributed among the following most diverse religions.

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