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Needham, Massachusetts

  •   State: 
    Norfolk County
      County FIPS: 
    42°17′00″N 71°14′00″W
      Area total: 
    32.9 km² (12.7 sq mi)
      Area land: 
    32.7 km² (12.6 sq mi)
      Area water: 
    0.2 km² (0.1 sq mi)
    49 m (162 ft)
    1680; Settled 1680; Incorporated 1711
  •   Latitude: 
      Dman name cbsa: 
    Boston-Cambridge-Newton, MA-NH
    Eastern Standard Time (EST) UTC-5:00; Eastern Daylight Time (EDT) UTC-4:00
      ZIP codes: 

    Needham, Norfolk County, Massachusetts, United States

  •   Population: 
      Population density: 
    981.4/km 2 (2,546.9 residents per square mile of area)
      Household income: 
      Unemployment rate: 
  •   Sales taxes: 
      Income taxes: 

Needham was first settled in 1680 with the purchase of a tract of land measuring 4 miles (6.4 km) by 5 miles (8.0 km) from Chief Nehoiden. It was officially incorporated in 1711. Originally part of the Dedham Grant, Needham split from Dedham and was named after the town of Needham Market in Suffolk, England. In 1857 the City of Boston began a project to fill in the Back Bay with landfill by filling the tidewater flats of the Charles River. The fill to reclaim the bay from the water was obtained from Needham, Massachusetts from the area of present-day Route 128. Needham and Wellesley high schools began playing an annual football game on Thanksgiving, now the second-longest running public high school football rivalry in the United States. In 1865, William Carter established a knitting mill company in Needham Heights that would eventually become a major manufacturer and leading brand of children's apparel in the U.S. The site of Mill #1 currently houses the Avery Manor assisted living center, while Mill #2 stood along the shores of Rosemary Lake. By the 1960s, the company owned seven mills in Massachusetts and the south. The Carter family sold the business in 1990, after which Carter's, Inc. moved its headquarters to Atlanta, Georgia. In the late 1860s William Emerson Baker moved to Needham. Baker assembled a parcel of land exceeding 800 acres (3.2 km²) and named it Ridge Hill Farm. He built two man made lakes on his property, including Sabrina lake near present- day Locust Lane.


Needham was first settled in 1680 with the purchase of a tract of land measuring 4 miles (6.4 km) by 5 miles (8.0 km) from Chief Nehoiden. Originally part of the Dedham Grant, Needham split from Dedham and was named after the town of Needham Market in Suffolk, England. In 1857 the City of Boston began a project to fill in the Back Bay with landfill by filling the tidewater flats of the Charles River. The filling of present-day Back Bay was completed by 1882; filling reached Kenmore Square in 1890, and finished in the Fens in 1900. In the late 1860s William Emerson Baker moved to Needham and built two man made lakes on his property. In 1888 he built a sizable hotel called the Hotel Wellesley which had a capacity of over 300 guests. The hotel burned to the ground on December 19, 1891. In 2013 Wellesley broke a three-year losing streak to the Needham Rockets, defeating them 226-226. The Wellesley Raiders now hold a 605-79 advantage in the historic rivalry. The public high school rivalry is now the second-longest running football rivalry in the United States (and the longest running contest on Thanksgiving). Also known as the Wellesley vs. Needham football game, it is the second longest running high school football game in the U.S. (and longest running game on Thanksgiving) Needham is home to the Boston Red Sox baseball team, the Boston Bruins football team, and the Boston Celtics basketball team.


Needham's area is roughly in the shape of an acute, northward-pointing triangle. The Charles River forms nearly all of the southern and northeastern boundaries. Needham borders Newton and the West Roxbury section of Boston on the northeast, and Dover, Westwood, and Dedham on the south. Elevations in Needham range from 85 feet above sea level at Rosemary Meadows to 180 feet at Needham Square and 300 feet at Bird's Hill. The majority of Cutler Park is in Needam and is located along the Charles River and the border with Newton andWest Roxbury. The town has a total area of 12.7 square miles (32.9 km²), of which 12.6 square miles is land and 0.1 square mile (0.2 km²) is water. In addition to Wellesley on the northwest, Needham also borders Dover and Westwood on the north. The U.S. Census Bureau estimates that Needham has a population of 2,816. It is the second-largest town in Massachusetts, after Cambridge, and the third-largest city in New Hampshire. It has an estimated population of 1,788, with a population growth rate of 0.7% in the last 10 years. It was the first town in the state to reach 1,000,000 people in the early 1900s. In the early 20th century, the town was the largest town in New England, and it is still the largest in Massachusetts today.


As of the census of 2020, there were 32,091 people, 10,801 households, and 8,480 families residing in the town. The racial makeup of the town was 82.6% White, 2.9% Black or African American, 0.1% Native American, 8.9%. The town's population was laid out with 26.2% under the age of 18, 5.3% from 18 to 24, 25.8% from 25 to 44, 24.7% from 45 to 64, and 18.0% who were 65 years of age or older. According to a 2007 estimate, the median income for a household in theTown was $116,867, and the median incomes for a family was $144,042. The per capita income for the town is $56,776. About 1.6%. of families and 2.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 1.2%. of those under age 18 and 4.2. of those age 65 or over. The town is located on the U.S.-Mexico border. It is located near the border of the state of New Mexico and New Mexico. It has a population of about 32,000, with a population density of 2,546.9 people per square mile (885.2/km²). The town has an estimated population of 32,100, and a population growth rate of 1.7%. The city's population is expected to grow to 32,200 by the end of the decade.


The town is part of the Massachusetts Senate's Norfolk, Bristol and Middlesex district. Needham uses the old style town government, with a representative town meeting. Also, the populace of Needham elects a Select Board, which is essentially the executive branch of the town government. The town is located on the Massachusetts Turnpike, which runs through Needham. It is one of the fastest-growing towns in the state, with an average of 1,000 residents per year. It has a population of 3,000. It was founded in 1837. The population was 1,200 in 1838. It had a population peak of 2,000 in 1841. The current population is 3,100. It also has a history of being the site of the Boston Marathon bombings. The city has been home to the U.S. Army's 7th Cavalry since 1841, and has been involved in World War I and II. It suffered a devastating fire that destroyed much of its downtown area in the 1950s and 1960s. In the 1970s and 1980s, the town suffered a series of devastating fires that claimed the lives of more than 100 people, including the town's mayor and two police officers. The area was also the scene of the Battle of the Bulge, which took place in 1881 and 1882. The  town is home to a number of historic sites, including Mount Washington, which was built in 1875. The site is also known for being a popular tourist destination, and is known for its beautiful beaches.


The northern side of Needham was developed for light industry shortly after World War II. Many restaurants and food companies are based in Needham. More recently, Needham has begun to attract high technology and internet firms, such as PTC and TripAdvisor, to this part of town. Needham is primarily a bedroom community and commuter suburban district located outside of Boston. It is located on the Massachusetts Turnpike, which runs from Boston to New York City and the New York-Massachusetts border. It has a population of about 3,000. The town is home to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, which was founded in 1858, and the Massachusetts Maritime Museum, which dates back to 1859. It also has a number of other colleges and universities, including Northeastern, Suffolk, Suffolk University, and Northeastern University, which were founded in the late 19th century and early 20th century. It was also the site of the Boston Marathon bombings, which took place in the 1940s and 1950s. The city is located near the intersection of the I-95/Route 128 beltway and the Mass. Pike, which connects Boston with the city of Cambridge and the Boston suburb of Roxbury. It's also near the New Hampshire Turnpikes, which connect Boston to the north and the south. The area is known as the "Boston Neck" area, and is known for its light industry, particularly in the construction industry and the development of the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority.


The Town of Needham operates one high school, Needham High School, which underwent a $62-million renovation that was completed in 2009. Needham is also home to Catholic schools such as St. Joseph's Elementary School, and Monsignor Haddad Middle School. St. Sebastian's School, a Catholic school for boys in grades 712, is part of the rigorous Independent School League.Franklin W. Olin College of Engineering is also located in Needham. The newest school opened in the fall of 2019, Sunita L. Williams Elementary School to replace the aging Hillside Elementary School. The town also has five elementary schools for grades K5: John Eliot Elementary, William Mitchell Elementary, Newman Elementary, and Broadmeadow Elementary. It also has two middle schools: William F. Pollard Middle School, for seventh and eighth grade, and High Rock School, for sixth grade only; and five elementary. schools forgrades K5, including John Eliot and William Mitchell. The Town also has one middle school, High Rock, for sixth and seventh grade only. It has one elementary school for grades eight and nine: Newman Elementary School for eighth and ninth grade. It recently finished building the newest elementary school, Sunitas Williams Elementary, to replace HillsideElementary School. It will open in theFall of 2019 and will be the town's newest school, replacing Hillside elementary School in the summer of 2019. It is also the home of the Olin college of engineering, which is located in the town.


The I-95/Route 128 circumferential highway that circles Boston passes through Needham. Massachusetts Route 135 also passes through the town.Commuter rail service from Boston's South Station is provided by the MBTA with four stops in Needham on its Needham Line. Needham Heights, Needham Center, needham Junction and Hersey are among the stops. The town is located on the Massachusetts Turnpike. It is also on the New Hampshire Turnpiked. It has a population of 2,856. It was the site of the World War II Battle of the Bulge, which took place in 1871 and 1872. It also was the location of the Battle of Gettysburg, which occurred in 1875. It's also the site where the U.S. Civil Rights Movement began in the late 19th century. The city's first post-World War II mayor was William "Bill" Hogue, who was elected to office in 1881 and served until 1883. He was a member of the Massachusetts House of Representatives from 1881 to 1883, and served as mayor of Needham from 1883 to 1885. He also served as the mayor of the town from 1885 to 1887 and 1887 to 1891 and 1891 to 1894. The current mayor is William "Billy" Walsh, who took office in 1971. He is a former mayor of Boston and served from 1973 to 1978. He served as chairman of the Boston City Council from 1978 to 1981.

Air Quality, Water Quality, Superfund Sites & UV Index

The Air Quality index is in Needham, Norfolk County, Massachusetts = 26.9. These Air Quality index is based on annual reports from the EPA. Higher values are better (100=best). The number of ozone alert days is used as an indicator of air quality, as are the amounts of seven pollutants including particulates, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, lead, and volatile organic chemicals. The Water Quality Index is 35. A measure of the quality of an area’s water supply as rated by the EPA. Higher values are better (100=best). The EPA has a complex method of measuring the watershed quality, using 15 indicators such as pollutants, turbidity, sediments, and toxic discharges. The Superfund Sites Index is 10. Higher is better (100=best). Based upon the number and impact of EPA Superfund pollution sites in the county, including spending on the cleanup efforts. The UV Index in Needham = 3.5 and is a measure of an area's exposure to the sun's ultraviolet rays. This is most often a combination of sunny weather, altitude, and latitude. The UV Index has been defined by the WHO ( and is uniform worldwide.


The most recent city population of 22,440 individuals with a median age of 42 age the population dropped by -1.03% in Needham, Norfolk County, Massachusetts population since 2000 and are distributed over a density of 981.4/km 2 (2,546.9 residents per square mile of area). There are average 2.6 people per household in the 10,636 households with an average household income of $109,486 a year. The unemployment rate in Alabama is 6.10% of the available work force and has dropped -4.07% over the most recent 12-month period and the projected change in job supply over the next decade based on migration patterns, economic growth, and other factors will increase by 25.76%. The number of physicians in Needham per 100,000 population = 414.4.


The annual rainfall in Needham = 45.3 inches and the annual snowfall = 48.1 inches. The annual number of days with measurable precipitation (over .01 inch) = 120. The average number of days per year that are predominantly sunny = 203. 84 degrees Fahrenheit is the average daily high temperature for the month of July and 18.9 degrees Fahrenheit is the average daily low temperature for the month of January. The Comfort Index (higher=better) is 50, where higher values mean a more pleasant climate. The Comfort Index measure recognizes that humidity by itself isn't the problem. (Have you noticed nobody ever complains about the weather being 'cold and humid?) It's in the summertime that we notice the humidity the most, when it's hot and muggy. Our Comfort Index uses a combination of afternoon summer temperature and humidity to closely predict the effect that the humidity will have on people.

Median Home Cost

The percentage of housing units in Needham, Norfolk County, Massachusetts which are owned by the occupant = 78.24%. A housing unit is a house, apartment, mobile home, or room occupied as separate living quarters. The average age of homes = 52 years with median home cost = $602,420 and home appreciation of -3.34%. This is the value of the years most recent home sales data. Its important to note that this is not the average (or arithmetic mean). The median home price is the middle value when you arrange all the sales prices of homes from lowest to highest. This is a better indicator than the average, because the median is not changed as much by a few unusually high or low values. The property tax rate of $11.91 shown here is the rate per $1,000 of home value. If for simplification for example the tax rate is $14.00 and the home value is $250,000, the property tax would be $14.00 x ($250,000/1000), or $3500. This is the 'effective' tax rate.


The local school district spends $7,933 per student. There are 14.2 students for each teacher in the school, 793 students for each Librarian and 252 students for each Counselor. 6.46% of the area’s population over the age of 25 with an Associate Degree or other 2-year college degree, 31.08% with a master’s degree, Ph.D. or other advanced college degree and 33.37% with high school diplomas or high school equivalency degrees (GEDs).

  • Needham's population in Norfolk County, Massachusetts of 1,304 residents in 1900 has increased 17,21-fold to 22,440 residents after 120 years, according to the official 2020 census.

    Approximately 52.11% female residents and 47.89% male residents live in Needham, Norfolk County, Massachusetts.

    As of 2020 in Needham, Norfolk County, Massachusetts are married and the remaining 33.88% are single population.

  • 30.4 minutes is the average time that residents in Needham require for a one-way commute to work. A long commute can have different effects on health. A Gallup poll in the US found that in terms of mental health, long haul commuters are up to 12 percent more likely to experience worry, and ten percent less likely to feel well rested. The Gallup poll also found that of people who commute 61­–90 minutes each day, a whopping one third complained of neck and back pain, compared to less than a quarter of people who only spend ten minutes getting to work.

    73.46% of the working population which commute to work alone in their car, 4.35% of the working population which commutes to work in a carpool, 11.53% of the population that commutes using mass transit, including bus, light rail, subway, and ferry. 6.83% of the population that has their home as their principal place of work.

  • Of the total residential buildings in Needham, Norfolk County, Massachusetts, 78.24% are owner-occupied homes, another 18.62% are rented apartments, and the remaining 3.14% are vacant.

  • The 68.81% of the population in Needham, Norfolk County, Massachusetts who identify themselves as belonging to a religion are distributed among the following most diverse religions.

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